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Drivers for sustainability [Elektronisk resurs] Making better use of cement in Dar es Salaam

Isaksson, Raine (författare)
12th QMOD conference on Quality and Service Sciences · ICQSS 2009, 27-28 August 2009, Verona, Italy 
Taylor, Neil (författare)
Uppsala universitet Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet (utgivare)
Verona Italy 2009
Ingår i: International Conference - Quality and Service Sciences 2009.
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Sammanfattning Ämnesord
  • Background: The Stern Review asserts that “Policy to reduce emissions should be based on three essential elements: carbon pricing, technology policy, and removal of barriers to behavioural change”. The most demanding challenge could be the issue of behavioural change which requires the mobilization of drivers for change towards more sustainable performance. According to reports from the WBCSD, the building supply chain in many countries could account for as much as 40% of man made carbon emissions. Most building growth is taking place in Third World countries with concrete and especially concrete blocks as the most widely used building material. Cement is the most expensive component of these materials and also has the highest carbon footprint. This means that it is of both economic and environmental interest to see that cement is used in the best way in order to make best use of resources. Purpose: To diagnose the improvement potential of a typical building supply network. To identify governance, technology and behavioural barriers to change and to propose how drivers for sustainable change could be strengthened. Methodology: A process based system model has been used to identify the main elements in the building supply network used for making concrete blocks in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The blockmaking process has been studied in some detail, using process walks at five different blockmaking sites. Additionally interviews with block makers, cement manufacturers and control laboratories for brick measurement have also been used to collect data. The resulting material has been summarised in a single unit multiple case study. The collected material has then been subjected to an opportunity study that covers diagnosis, analysis, and to some extent, proposed actions for improvement. The diagnosis provides the theoretical improvement potential in terms of user value per price and user value per carbon footprint. The analysis of the causes for the improvement potential has been carried out using a checklist for resources with focus on Material, Machine, Method, Measurement, Manpower and Management factors. Proposed actions focus on ideas of how to reinforce drivers that will help to overcome the main identified barriers, which are mainly expressed as resource problems. Research limitations: Block-making has been used to exemplify the main building supply network in Dar es Salaam. The justification for this choice is that approximately 60% of cement sales in Dar es Salaam go into block-making. In a typical Western context only 15% of the entire carbon footprint over the lifetime of a building comes from building materials with the rest coming mainly from heating and cooling. The situation in an African city like Dar es Salaam is very different with relatively few buildings having cooling and none having heating. Consequently  the role of the building materials, and especially cement use, becomes more important both in terms of initial cost and for the resulting carbon footprint.   


Engineering and Technology  (hsv)
Teknik och teknologier  (hsv)
Kvalitetsteknik (HGO)  (uu)
Quality Technology and Management (HGO)  (uu)

Indexterm och SAB-rubrik

Concrete blocks
system improvement
supply network
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